Here you will find a growing list of random aviation knowledge questions students have when studying and learning to fly.
The propeller blades are twisted to help the meet the air at almost the same angle of attack along their length which improves efficiency.
Stalling speed increases in a turn because of the increase in load factor. The airplane isn’t actually heavier. It is fake weight, but the airplane reacts to it. With more weight, fake or not, the angle of attack needs to be increased to maintain lift. Even in level flight a heavier identical airplane flying at the same speed (with increased power) will need to fly at a greater angle of attack to maintain altitude. The greater the angle of attack the closer your are to the critical angle of attack, or stalling speed. A wing on most general aviation airplanes stalls between 16° and 18°. An identical heavier airplane, loaded with fake weight or actual weight, will reach the critical angle of attack at a greater airspeed, thus entering a stall.
We lean the mixture as we climb because of the decrease in air density. We are trying to keep the ratio of fuel to air by mass constant, not by volume. The volume remains the same. The combustion chamber does not change in size. However, the decreasing air density, because of decreasing pressure, continues to decrease the number of air molecules that enter the combustion chamber. Say our proper fuel/air ratio is 1:1 at sea level. If we climbed to 10,000 feet and did not lean the mixture we might end up with a fuel/air ratio of 2:1.
The Minister (Transport Canada), a Peace Officer, or an Immigration Officer.
You will need to have:
- the certificate of airworthiness
- the certificate of registration
- your radio licence
- the POH
- the weight and balance
- the aircraft journey logbook
- certificate of insurance
- your license or permit
- your medical certificate
Ice is likely to accumulate first on surfaces with thin leading edges, such as antennae or landing gear struts. The wings are usually the last to collect ice.
Night is when the sun’s disc is more than 6 degrees below the horizon.
For a 2 VOR comparison check: +/- 4°
Airborne geographic location check: +/- 6°
VOR checkpoint: +/- 4° of the posted radial. DME should be within 0.5 of the posted distance.
If you would like a type rating to fly and airplane which requires a crew of 2 or more persons you will need:
- to complete a a ground and flight training program
- to pass the written IATRA exam within 24 months of applying
- to complete flight training on the airplane you wish to fly
- to have a minimum of 250 hours in airplanes
- to pass a PPC (pilot proficiency check) with in the previous 12 months
If you would like a type rating to fly a high performance airplane you will need:
- a minimum of 200 hours flying airplanes
- to complete ground training
- to complete flight training
- to complete a qualifying flight
If you have a com failure while in the circuit at control zone (assuming you had a clearance to enter) set your transponder to 7600 and land.
If an aeroplane and a glider are converging head on both should ALTER HEADING to the RIGHT.
1 nm flight visibility. Must complete the approach clear of cloud.
Valve overlap is when the intake and exhaust valves are both open at the same time.
Class A, B, C, as well as class D and E as specified in the Designated Airspace Handbook.
The first 1/3 of the runway, or 3000ft, which ever is less.
The standard pressure region is airspace that includes the Northern Domestic Airspace and all airspace above 18,000ft within the Southern Domestic Airspace. When flying in the Standard Pressure Region, your altimeter is set to 29.92 in Hg and all altitudes are expressed as “flight levels.”
FL210 = 21,000 ft
FL90 = 9,000ft
To maintain vertical separation between aircraft flying high in the Altimeter Setting Region of the Southern Domestic Airspace and the Standard Pressure Region, there are lowest useable flight levels for lower than normal pressure measurements.
If the altimeter setting is 29.92 in Hg or higher, the lowest usable flight level is FL180
For 28.92 to 29.91 in Hg, it’s FL190.
And for 2792-28.91 in Hg, it’s FL200.
Aircraft may not fly over 200kts while below 3,000ft AGL and within 10nm of a controlled airport.
No aircraft is permitted to fly over 250kts KIAS below 10,000ft ASL.
It is located within the Southern Domestic Airspace. It is controlled airspace extending upwards from 18,000ft ASL to FL600.
When converting from IAS to TAS the rule of thumb is is that TAS increases by 1.5% over IAS for every thousand feet up to 20,000 feet.
For example, if you are flying at 4000 feet and your IAS is 100 KTs your TAS will be roughly 106 KT TAS.
100 * 0.015 = 1.5
1.5 * 4 = 6
100 + 6 = 106 KT TAS
The rule of thumb for calculating maximum safe crosswind is to take the clean stall speed of the airplane and multiply it by 0.2.
Ex: 50KT stall speed would mean the airplane should be safe in 10KTs of direct x-wind.
Check your POH for max demonstrated crosswinds in your plane.
The rule of thumb for calculating density altitude is to add 120 feet to the pressure altitude for each degree above standard temperature.
For example. If you pressure altitude was 700 feet and the temp was 28 degrees Celsius you would add 1560 feet to your pressure altitude giving you an approximate density altitude of 2260 feet.
Remember high temperatures, high humidity, high altitudes, and low pressure all contribute to raising the density altitude.
The rule of thumb is to take your TAS in KT, divide by 10 and add 7.
AoB = TAS / 10 + 7
If there is an altimeter error of more than 50 feet while on the ground, you have a problem.
To check the accuracy, apply the present altimeter setting to the altimeter and compare the altitude indicated with the runway or aerodrome elevation. The altimeter should be within 50 feet +/- of the elevation of the runway. If the deviation is more, have the instrument checked by maintenance.
It is located within the Northern Domestic Airspace. It is controlled airspace extending upwards from FL230 to FL600.
Service Ceiling is the height at which the maximum rate of climb reduces to 100 fpm.
Absolute Ceiling is the height at which the rate of climb is reduced to zero (0).
Detonation is when the fuel/air mixture burns all at once in the cylinder as opposed to slowly starting from the spark plug. It can occur when the engine is running too hot, when running low octane fuel, or when running too high a manifold pressure for the RPM. The symptom are engine roughness, vibration, or loss of power.
Pre-ingnition is when the fuel/air mixture is igniting before the spark plug sparks. This usually happens when small accumulations of lead or carbon build up on the piston head, or commonly, on the spark plug. These accumulations heat up and ignite the fuel/air mixture out of sequence, usually during the compression stroke. The symptoms are lack of power and engine roughness.
In a skid the tail is outside of the turn. In a slip the tail is inside of the turn. If the tail is positioned inside or outside of a turn it means you are presenting some part of the side of the fuselage to the relative airflow and thus are creating more drag.
The camber line is an imaginary line that runs through the centre of the wing, from leading edge to trailing edge. It remains equal distance from the top of the wing to the bottom of the wing.
Camber is the measure of the curvature of a wing. In simple terms, it is a distance measurement from the chord line to the camber line. Camber is measured as a percentage of the chord. If you had a chord line that was 200cm long and the greatest measured distance from the chord line to the camber line was 30cm you would have a 15% camber.
A greater camber would equate to more lift at lower speeds, but consequently more drag at higher speeds. Think about how the application of flaps changes the flight characteristics of your airplane. With flaps you create more lift at lower speeds (your stall speed decreases), however you increase the amount of induced drag.
The boundary layer is the airflow nearest the skin of the wing.
18,000 feet MSL.
The most northern section of the Northern Domestic Airspace. It is controlled airspace extending upwards from FL270 to FL600.
The Angle of Incidence is the angle between the chord line of the wing and the longitudinal axis of the plane. Not to be confused with the angle of attack. The angle of incidence remains static while the angle of attack is dynamic.
The following is required:
- a mode ‘C’ transponder
- a two-way radio or prior approval
- an ATC clearance
- continuous listening watch on frequency assigned by ATC
Dihedral is a type of wing design in which the wings appear to bend upwards from the fuselage to the wing tip. This is not to be confused with washout. Although they both attempt to provide greater stability about the longitudinal axis, aka roll stability.
Aspect ratio is SPAN divided by AVERAGE CHORD.
Wing span = 40.5 feet
Avg. chord = 6.3 feet
Aspect Ratio = 40.5 / 6.3
Aspect Ratio = 6.42
Keep in mind two airplanes can have very different wing span length but still have the same total wing area. An aircraft with a high aspect ratio generally produces less induced drag than low aspect ratio aircraft. Example: a glider (high aspect ratio) and a Piper Warrior (low aspect ratio).
High aspect ratio wings are more expensive to produce and are heavier.
Angle of Attack is the angle between the chord line and the relative airflow (sometimes called relative wind). All wings will stall when they reach the critical angle of attack which is between 16-18 degrees.
Angle of attack is greatest at low air speeds in relation to your plane. 40KTs could be slow in a Cessna 152 while 80KTs might be slow in a light twin engine plane such as a Piper Seneca. Even though the speeds are different in each plane it is possible that at that speed they would both be flying at the same (high) angle of attack.
Individual Type Ratings are required for aircraft that meet the ‘high performance’ criteria or require a crew of 2 persons or more.
Trim tabs are used to balance control forces. If there was not a trim tab the pilot would constantly need to hold the control column in place to maintain the desired attitude.
They are controlled airspace classified as Class B or Class E. Class B extends from 12,501ft or the MEA (whichever is highest), up to 17,999ft ASL. Class E extends from 2,200ft AGL up to the bottom of the Class B airspace. The lateral dimensions of the airways depend on what navaids they are based off of. They can be VORs, NDBs, or a combination of the two.
An airway based off of two VORs will have a splay angle of 4° on either side of the center line, which will intersect with the basic width boundary of the airway 50.8nm from the navaids at either end of the airway.
One VOR and one NDB will have a splay angle of 4.34° on either side of the center line, which will intersect with the basic width boundary of the airway 49.66nm from the navaids at either end of the airway. The same goes for and airway based off two NDBs.
It is uncontrolled airspace that extends from the surface of the earth up to, but not including, 18,000ft.
A high performance airplane is an airplane which has a stall speed in the landing configuration (Vso) of 80+ KIAS or a never exceed speed (Vne) of 250+ KIAS.
A flight crew member may not be on duty for more than 14 consecutive hours in any 24 consecutive hours.
Washout is a type of wing design where the angle of incidence reduces from the wing root to the wing tip. The angle of incidence is the angle between the longitudinal axis of the airplane and the chord line of the wing. Washout is like a warp in the wing. Washout makes it so the wing root reaches a higher angle of attack before the wing tip. This means the wing root will stall before the wing tip and thus creates more stability about the longitudinal axis; otherwise known as roll stability.
Most general aviation wings stall between 16° and 18°. This is known as the critical angle of attack. As you increase the angle of attack the centre of pressure (bottom of the wing) moves forward. As this happens the boundary layer is unable to follow the contour of the wing and begins to separate from the top of the wing starting at the trailing edge. As the angle of attack continues to increase the centre of pressure continues to move forward and as subsequently the boundary layer continues to separate from the top of the wing moving toward the leading edge. When the maximum lift coefficient is reached the stall occurs and the center of pressure rapidly moves backwards. This causes the nose to pitch down.
True airspeed and angle of bank. The lower the true airspeed and the greater the angle of bank the tighter the turn. Don’t forget that your stall speed increases in a turn.
Rain will give you the illusion that you are closer to the runway than you actually are because of the magnification from the rain droplets on the windscreen.
Weight will reduce the range of your airplane. Added weight will require more lift. More lift means more induced drag. More drag means more power is necessary and consequently greater fuel consumption. In the same airplane loaded with more weight at the same power setting you will arrive at your destination later (given the same atmospheric conditions). In order to increase range it would be wise to load the airplane with the C of G more aft (but still within limits).
Weight has no effect on gliding distance provided the lift to drag ratios are the same. A lightly loaded plane will have greater glide endurance but will glide the same distance as a heavier plane in zero wind conditions.
It means that procedure turns are not required to complete the approach – straight in approaches are permitted.
Obstacle clearance and signal coverage.
1 minute legs, rate 1 turns to the right with a maximum bank angle of 25°, and a maximum speed of 175kts in a propeller driven aircraft.
Winglets are 90° upward bends at the wing tip. They significantly reduce the amount of drag and loss of lift caused by wingtip vortices. This translates to improved cruising speeds, improved time/climb rates, and increase operating altitudes.
Vortex Generators are little tabs the stick up from the wing surface. Their function is to mix the lower velocity air of the boundary layer with the higher velocity air outside the boundary layer. This helps to recharge the boundary layer and delays separation of the boundary layer from the wing top.
As the angle of attack increases the boundary layer (of air) begins to separate from the wing top starting at the trail edge. As the the angle of attack continues to increase the boundary layer continues to separate moving toward the leading edge of the wing.
What are the weather requirements for an airport, with no authorized IAP, being used as an alternate?
The forecast for the projected ETA must indicate that the ceiling and visibility will be at least 500 feet above the minimum IFR altitude that will permit a VFR approach and landing.
Histoxic Hypoxia results when organs are not able to absorb oxygen properly. Such as when under the influence of alcohol.
Hypoxic Hypoxia results when there is not enough oxygen in the air. Such as at high altitudes.
Anemic Hypoxia results when the blood cannot aborb oxygen and distribute it to different parts or the body. Such as during carbon monoxide poisoning.
Stagnant Hypoxia results when blood cannot move through the body freely. Such as during long periods of sitting.
Types of drag acting on an airplane:
- Parasitic Drag
- interference drag
- skin friction
- form drag
- Induced Drag
- Tingling in your fingers and toes
- you feel euphoric
- numbness, dizziness, drowsiness
- fatigue, nausea, headaches
- Poor judgement and coordination
- bluish lips and fingernails
- increased lack of vision at night
The standard criteria that departing aircraft will adhere to in order to assure obstacle clearance include:
- Cross the departure end of the runway at or above 35ft
- Make no turns until 400ft AAE (above aerodrome elevation)
- Maintain a climb gradient of 200ft per NM until the en-route structure is reached – unless otherwise stated.
Providing IFR separation from other aircraft.
Obstacle clearance during approach and during missed approach, despite the fact that ATC may issue specific missed approach instructions.
An aerodrome needs to have white lights marking the landing and take off area, red lights marking unserviceable areas, and an illuminated windsock to legally be used at night.
Use the MF frequency while in the MF area and then monitor 126.7 (and/or other local frequencies) when clear of the area.
Must be initiated within a radar environment, reported ceiling at least 500ft above minimum IFR altitude, ground visibility of 3SM or more, report aerodrome in sight (or preceding airplane if at controlled aerodrome).
Flight: the person removes themselves from the situation.
Resignation: the person gives up.
Projection: the person will blame others for their mistakes.
Aggression: the person becomes aggressive or argumentative.
Rationalization: the person tries to justify their mistakes or make excuses.
Basic Empty Weight (BEW): the weight of the aircraft as it sits in front of you including oil and other fluids, not NOT FUEL.
Useful Load: the maximum allowable gross weight of the aircraft MINUS the BEW.
Payload: the maximum allowable gross weight of the aircraft MINUS fuel weight and MINUS the BEW.
Maximum Ramp Weight: the maximum weight at which the aircraft can be taxied.
Maximum Take Off Weight: the maximum weight at which the aircraft can become airborne.
Maximum Landing Weight: the maximum weight at which the aircraft can land.
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight: the maximum weight at which the aircraft can be loaded without accounting for fuel weight.
A fine pitch propeller will take off and climb better. A course pitch propeller will cruise better.
Intake, compression, power, exhaust.
Lift: acts perpendicular to the relative airflow
Drag: acts parallel to the relative airflow
Weight: acts toward the centre of the earth
Thrust: acts in the direction of motion
Servo tabs reduce control forces.
Anti-servo tabs increase control forces.
Minimum visibility at the touchdown zone.
The VFR weather minima for airplanes are as follows:
(CARs 602.114 and 602.115)
- 3 SM visibility
- 1 SM horizontal separation from cloud
- 500 feet vertical separation from cloud
- 500 feet AGL
- 3 SM visibility
- 1 SM horizontal separation from cloud
- 500 feet vertical separation from cloud
Uncontrolled Airspace ABOVE 1000 feet AGL
- 1 SM visibility DAY / 3 SM visibility NIGHT
- 2000 feet horizontal separation from cloud
- 500 feet vertical separation from cloud
Uncontrolled Airspace BELOW 1000 feet AGL
- 2 SM visibility DAY / 3 SM visibility NIGHT
- clear of cloud
More than one navaid is required to identify the approach and receive guidance.
Endurance decreases with altitude and therefore is greater at sea level.
Increasing your airspeed in a turn will decrease the rate of turn and increase the turn radius.
Yes, by using a GFA for the forecast, as long as no cloud is forecasted to exist 1,000ft above the HAT/HAA.
The pitot-static system needs to be checked and calibrated every 24 months for IFR flight.
How often does the pitot static system and the altimeter need to be calibrated on a VFR airplane to fly in Class B airspace?
The pitot static system and the altimeter need to be calibrated every 24 months to fly in class B airspace.
1 (one) litre of oil weighs approximately 2 pounds.
You need 5 solo XC hours before you will be issued a Canadian PPL.
Angle of bank = (TAS in knots / 10) + 7
Angle of bank = (TAS in mph / 10) + 5
Rate of climb = (climb gradient x ground speed) / 60
There is also a chart in the CAP GEN that will help you determine your rate of climb.
Moment = Arm * Weight
As per Transport Canada standards, a windsock will extend horizontally in a wind of 15 knots or more. At 10 knots the windsock will be 5° below the horizontal. At 6 knots the windsock will be 30° below the horizontal. At 3 knots the windsock will orientate itself in the direction of the wind.
15 KT – horizontal
10 KT – 5° below horizontal
6 KT – 30° below horizontal
3 KT – orientates with wind direction
If the windsock is flying horizontal, the wind is 15kts or greater.
If the windsock is hanging 5 degrees below horizontal, the wind is 10kts.
If the windsock is hanging 30 degrees below horizontal, the wind is 6kts.
Attain the current weight and balance sheet for airplane. In your POH find the weight and balance section that gives you the name of each station with it’s arm. Multiply the weight by each station arm to get the moment for each arm. Add up the weight column. Add up the moment column. Divide the moment by the weight to get the centre of gravity (C of G). Find the C of G envelop graph in your airplane’s POH. Mark your C of G on the envelop graph to determine if you C of G is in acceptable limits.
It is the altitude at or above the MEA which is consistent with the direction of flight. For magnetic headings between 0° and 179°, you must cruise at odd thousands (5000ft, 7000ft, 9000ft, etc). For magnetic headings between 180° and 359°, you must cruise at even thousands (4000ft, 6000ft, 8000ft, etc).
In order to calculate time to climb you need:
- the vertical distance you are climbing (ex SL to 4000 feet = 4000 feet)
- your climb rate (ex 500 feet per minute)
Time to climb = 4000/500
Time to climb = 8 minutes
In order to calculate fuel burned you need:
- Time to climb (8 mins)
- Fuel flow (9 Gph)
- The number 60
Fuel burned for climb = 8 * 9 / 60
Fuel burned for climb = 1.2 Gallons
To calculate distance traveled during your climb you will need:
- Time to climb (8 mins)
- Your ground speed (ex 70 kt)
- The number 60
Distance traveled during climb = 8 * 70 / 60
Distance traveled during climb = 9 . 33 NM
Take the square root of the load factor and multiply it by the stalling speed at 0° of bank.
Stalling speed = 47KT (Vs)
Stalling speed at 45° bank = √ 1.41 * 47
Stalling speed at 45° bank = 55 KT
|Angle of Bank||Load Factor (G’s)|
In order to achieve maximum endurance in a piston airplane fly at the lowest safe altitude with the propeller turning as slowly as possible to maintain level flight.
The easiest way to find this power setting is to reduce the power in 100 RPM increments until you cannot maintain altitude unless you add power. Your maximum endurance power setting is the last power setting used before you needed to add power.
No, they do not. At a controlled aerodrome, ATC will issue instructions. At an uncontrolled aerodrome, remain clear of cloud and land as soon as possible. Contact ATC for instructions if you cannot land.
400ft ceiling and 1 sm visibility.
600ft ceiling and 2 sm visibility